Home Departments

Grid Energy Storage and Battery Secondary Use (vehicle-to-grid and second-life battery-to-grid)

The Luskin Center is developing innovative strategies to enhance plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) value through secondary use of PEV batteries. This includes both vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) and post-vehicle repurposing of used PEV batteries (“second life”) into stationary energy-storage appliances (B2G). These various forms of energy storage can provide mobile, emergency, and/or grid power and valuable services. Applications examined include power quality/reliability, demand-charge mitigation, utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral, and grid regulation. 



"Second Life for Plug-In Vehicle Batteries: Effect of Grid Energy Storage Value on Battery Lease Payments"

Journal article by Williams (2012)


"Plug-In-Vehicle Battery Secondary Use: Integrating Grid Energy-Storage Value"

Presentation by Brett Williams to Plug-In 2012 conference (July 2012), San Antonio TX


A techno-economic analysis of PEV battery second use: repurposed-battery selling price and commercial and industrial end-user value

SAE paper by Neubauer, Williams, et al. (2012)


Analysis of the Combined Vehicle- and Post-Vehicle-Use Value of Lithium-Ion Plug-In-Vehicle Propulsion Batteries

CEC report by Williams and Lipman (2011)


Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

(Electric-drive vehicles and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power)

Journal article by Williams and Kurani (2007)


Estimating the early household market for light-duty hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles and other "Mobile Energy" innovations in California: A constraints analysis

(plug-in-vehicle market constraints)

Journal article by Williams and Kurani (2006)


Innovative Drivers for Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell-Vehicle Commercialization: Establishing Vehicle-to-Grid Markets

(plug-in-hybrid parkinglot powerplants)

Conference paper by Williams and Finkelor (2004)


From Fuel Cells to a Hydrogen Based Economy: How Vehicle Design is Crucial to a New Energy Infrastructure

Article by Lovins and Williams (2001)